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Influenced and straight up quoted from “network layer protocols with Byzantine robustness - Radia Perlman”

Failures in networks are caused by faults involving nodes and links. A “simple failure” consists of a node or link becoming inoperable, and ceasing to function at all. “Byzantine failures”, on the other hand, are caused by nodes or links which continue to operate, but incorrectly. A node with Byzantine failure may corrupt messages, forge messages, delay messages, or send conflicting messages to different nodes.

There are various levels of robustness that can be achieved:

Simple Robustness:

Traditional Network Layer algorithms achieve robustness in the face of “simple failures”, i.e. nodes or links become inoperative.

Self Stabilisation:

An algorithm that is “self-stabilizing”, which guarantees correct convergence, even with a history including Byzantine faults. Self-stabilizing algorithms guarantee correctness once any malfunctioning nodes are disconnected from the network, but do not make any guarantees about behavior while a malfunctioning node is participating in the network.

Byzantine Detection

May not operate correctly in the face of Byzantine failure, but in which the identity of the failed node can easily be discovered.